Found in Eastern and Central U.S. northward into southern Canada, in thick, dense stands and as ornamentals.
Toxalbumins phasin, robin and robitin in bark, leaves and seeds.
Toxicity occurs from grazing young sprouts, ingesting bark or pruned/fallen branches. Clinical signs may develop one to two hours post ingestion, and may include loss of appetite, depression, stupor, weakness with rear end paralysis, laminitis, coldness of the extremities, dilated pupils, difficulty breathing, weak, irregular pulse, diarrhea (which may be bloody). Primary damage is to the gastrointestinal tract; long term effects can include chronic laminitis.
Toxic to Dogs
Toxic to Cats
Toxic to Horses