The ASPCA believes that all farm animals sent to slaughter must have a quick death without pain, fear or distress. This requires attention to animal welfare at all phases, whether on or off the farm. Also, all downed animals must receive swift and appropriate medical attention, including euthanasia when appropriate. Animals must also be rendered insensible to pain at the earliest possible time and in the most humane manner. To this end, the ASPCA supports research into more humane and reliable methods of stunning and slaughter. Such methods may include controlled atmosphere stunning, controlled atmosphere killing and low atmospheric pressure stunning. Research must be done into the optimal way to use these technologies for each particular species. The ASPCA believes that the federal humane slaughter legislation and regulations should be enforced to the fullest extent possible and should be broadened to include birds such as chickens and turkeys.